Section 1 – Plan, Install and Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi
- Objective 1.4 – Install VMware ESX/ESXi on SAN Storage
LUN masking is a process that makes a LUN available to some hosts and unavailable to other hosts.
LUN (Logical Unit Number) Masking is an authorization process that makes a LUN available to some hosts and unavailable to other hosts.
What is the maximum amount of LUNS that a vSphere Host can have?
C.It depends on whether the Host is using iSCSI or Fibre Channel SAN
Configuration Maximums VMware® vSphere 4.0 and vSphere 4.0 Update 1, page 4.
LUNs per host 256
SCSI Disk, Fibre Channel LUN or a RAID LUN with unpartitioned space is a requirement for an ESX4 installation?
Getting Started with ESX, ESX 4.0, vCenter Server 4.0, page 7.
ESX Hardware Requirements
Installation and Storage
Which of the following are valid conditions for installing the Paravirtualized SCSI (PVSCSI) adapter in a guest (Choose Two)?
A.The adapter should be used with the OS virtual disk
B.The adapter should be used with the data virtual disk
C.The Guest Operating System must be Windows 2003,2008 or RHEL 5
D.The Guest Operating Systems can be any guest that supports Paravirtualization
vSphere Basic System Administration vCenter Server 4.0 ESX 4.0 ESXi 4.0, page 165
VMware recommends that you create a primary adapter (LSI Logic by default) for use with a disk that will host the system software (bootdisk) and a separate PVSCSI adapter for the disk that will store user data, such as a database
Paravirtual SCSI adapters are available for virtual machines running hardware version 7 and greater. They are supported on the following guest operating systems:
Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2003
Red Hat Linux (RHEL) 5
The following features are not supported with Paravirtual SCSI adapters:
A request has been made to the SAN Administrator to provision a new LUN. A LUN (LUN 6) is created and the SAN administrator presents the LUN to the ESX Server using the storage array SAN Management software. After a Rescan operation on the ABC ESX Server, the LUN does not show up. Other LUNs from the same storage array are visible.
Which of the following could be the cause (Choose Two)?
A.Zoning is not set up correctly
B.The HBA on the active path is shared with the service console
C.The LUN was not presented to the correct ESX Server
D.LUN masking on a range of LUNS is enabled on the ESX Server, causing LUN 6 to be ignored
Using Storage Area Networks with ESX Server.
Disk arrays carve the storage RAID set into logical units (LUNs) that are presented to the server in a manner similar to an independent single disk. Typically, LUNs are few in number, relatively large, and fixed in size. Therefore it is possible that the LUN was not presented to the correct ESX server, (C above).
For administrative or security purposes, you can use LUN masking to prevent the server from seeing LUNs that it doesn’t need to access. Therefore it is possible an incorrect mask has been set up, (D above).
What is the proper LUN Masking configuration for LUNs presented to an ESX Host when using the Boot from SAN option?
A.The Boot LUN and datastore LUNS should be masked so that only one ESX Host can see the LUNs
B.The Boot LUN and datastore LUNS should be masked so that all ESX Hosts can see the LUNs
C.The Boot LUN should be masked so that only one ESX Host can see the LUN, while the datastore LUNS should be masked so that all ESX Hosts can see the LUNs
D.The Boot LUN should be masked so that all ESX Hosts can see the LUN, while the datastore LUNS should be masked so that only one ESX Host can see the LUNs
iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide, page 14, 52.
Boot LUNs should only be visible to the server using that LUN to boot. No other server or system on the SAN should be permitted to see that boot LUN.
ESX/ESXi and SAN Use Cases.
You can perform a number of tasks when using ESX/ESXi with SAN. Using ESX/ESXi in conjunction with SAN is effective for the following tasks:
Maintenance with zero downtime
When performing an ESX/ESXi host or infrastructure maintenance, use VMware DRS or
VMotion to migrate virtual machines to other servers. If shared storage is on the SAN,
you can perform maintenance without interruptions to the user.
Use VMotion or VMware DRS to migrate virtual machines to other hosts for load balancing. If shared storage is on a SAN, you can perform load balancing without interruption to the user.
To enable this functionality, shares storage is required – hence the datastore LUNS should be masked so that all ESX Hosts can see the LUNs
An administrator is installing an ESX Host to boot from a SAN LUN. Which of the following two requirements are necessary when configuring the HBA in the ESX Host (Choose Two)?
A.The HBA must be plugged into the highest available PCI bus and slot number
B.The HBA must be plugged into the lowest available PCI bus and slot number
C.The HBA BIOS must be enabled
D.The HBA BIOS must be disabled
VMware ESX Server SAN Configuration Guide, page 61.
ESX Server Configuration Requirements for Booting from SAN
* The HBA BIOS for your QLogic HBA Fibre Channel card must be enabled and correctly configured to access the boot LUN.
* The booting logical unit number (LUN) must be visible from the lowest numbered HBA that has any visible LUNs.
* The boot LUN must be visible from the lowest numbered storage processor (attached to that HBA) that has any visible LUNs.
* The boot LUN must be the lowest numbered LUN attached to that storage processor (except for gatekeeper LUNs which are sometimes assigned LUN0).
* You must remove all internal SCSI drives for all servers.
* HBA numbers can change automatically when you add and remove PCI adapters, or manually when you edit the /etc/vmware/devnames.conf file. The HBA must be set to the lowest PCI bus and slot number. This enables it to be detected very quickly since the drivers scan the HBAs in ascending PCI bus and slot numbers, regardless of the associated virtual machine HBA number.
* If you are running an IBM eServer BladeCenter and boot from SAN, you must disable IDE drives on the blades.
Which of the following features can be used in combination with Network Attached Storage (Choose Three)?
B.Virtual Machine Snapshots
C.Raw Device Mapping
VMware Infrastructure Automating High Availability (HA) Services with VMware HA, page 15.
There are a few basic requirements that your virtual infrastructure system and hosts need to meet so that VMware cluster and HA features operate properly. First, for clusters enabled for VMware HA, all virtual machines and their configuration files must reside on shared storage (Fibre Channel SAN, iSCSI SAN, or SAN iSCI NAS), because you need to be able to power on the virtual machine on any host in the cluster. [A above]
Introduction to VMware vSphere ESX 4.0 ESXi 4.0 vCenter Server 4, page 19 and 20.
Each datastore is a physical VMFS volume on a storage device. NAS datastores are an NFS volume with VMFS characteristics. VMFS also features failure consistency and recovery mechanisms, such as distributed journaling, a failure consistent virtual machine I/O path, and machine state snapshots. These mechanisms can aid quick identification of the cause and recovery from virtual machine, physical host, and storage subsystem failures [B above]
vSphere introduces several new capabilities to Storage VMotion. When Storage VMotion was introduced in VI3 release 3.5, it had a few limitations which vSphere 4 addresses.
Storage VMotion is now fully integrated into vCenter and offers full support for migration across datastores of several protocol choices. Hence the enhanced Storage
VMotion capabilities fall squarely in the realm of how vSphere provides an increased set of choices. First the ability to move a VM home from one datastore to another while changing the storage protocol in the process. The source datastore might be FC, iSCSI, or NFS, and the target datastore any of those three. [D above]
VCPCERT.com wants to increase disk capacity for their VMware vSphere environment.
Management mandates that:
(1) VMotion must work in this environment
(2) the existing LAN infrastructure must be used
(3) the storage must support VMFS volumes
Which storage option would best meet company objectives?
iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide ESX 4.0 ESXi 4.0 vCenter Server 4.0, page 9, 13, 16.
Overview of Using ESX/ESXi with a SAN Using ESX/ESXi with a SAN improves flexibility, efficiency, and reliability. Using ESX/ESXi with a SAN also supports centralized management and failover and load
The following are benefits of using ESX/ESXi with a SAN:
You can perform live migration of virtual machines using VMware VMotion.
Therefore this option would meet requirement (1) VMotion must work in this environment
iSCSI SANs use Ethernet connections between computer systems, or host servers, and high-performance storage subsystems. The SAN components include host bus adapters (HBAs) or Network Interface Cards (NICs) in the host servers, switches and routers that transport the storage traffic, cables, storage processors (SPs), and storage disk systems
Therefore this option would meet requirement (2) the existing LAN infrastructure must be used
Use the vSphere Client to set up a VMFS datastore in advance on any SCSI-based storage device that your ESX/ESXi host discovers. A VMFS datastore can be extended over several physical storage extents, including SAN LUNs and local storage. This feature allows you to pool storage and gives you flexibility in creating the storage volume necessary for your virtual machine.
Therefore this option would meet requirement (3) the storage must support VMFS volumes
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